Applied and Computational Mathematics

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Power Assessment of the Human Ankle during the Stance Phase of Walking for Designing a Safe Active Prosthesis in Below-Knee Amputees

Received: 2 February 2015    Accepted: 5 February 2015    Published: 2 March 2015
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Abstract

Many studies have been done on the biological human ankle and prosthesis replaced with this limb. Although some of these works targeted to design a prosthesis which mimics the behavior of biological ankle, additional system is required to support the elastic components; any of them have obviously introduced an active system in designing ankle prosthesis until now. In this study the power of the non-disabled human ankle joint was examined during the stance phase of walking in sagittal plane. The study aimed to better understand the ankle’s dynamic behavior for designing foot prosthesis with active mechanism. Kinematic and Kinetic data of the lower limb were collected from 18 healthy, young subjects (i.e. 6 females and 13 males) walking over a speed range of slow, normal and fast (i.e. 0.86 to 1.80 m/s). The ankle moment versus angle curves were plotted and total, mean and maximum values of powers were calculated for each trial. The results indicated that the total, mean and maximum values of the power could increase as the walking speed increased. The main findings of this study were the total, mean and maximum values of the power as a function of the linear velocity of walking. These results showed that the speed of 1.06 m/s was a critical velocity, below which the system was negative, showing energy consumer system, and above it the system was positive, suggesting generated energy. With the intent to design a prosthesis mimicking a biologic foot, an augmented system which is able to adjust the power to the speed is necessary.

DOI 10.11648/j.acm.s.2015040201.12
Published in Applied and Computational Mathematics (Volume 4, Issue 2-1, April 2015)

This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality, Reliability, Safety, and Risk Modeling and Optimization

Page(s) 7-11
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Natural Ankle, Active Prosthesis, Below-Knee Amputee, Moment-Angle Curves, Safety

References
[1] Au, S. K. and Herr, H. M., “Powered ankle-foot prosthesis,” IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 52–59, 2008.
[2] Bateni, H., Olney, S. (2002). Kinematic and Kinetic Variations of Below-Knee Amputee Gait. Prosthet Orthotic Journal, 14, 2-10.
[3] Cherelle, P., Matthys, A., Grosu, V., Vanderborght & Lefeber, D. (2012). The AMP-Foot 2.0: Mimicking Intact Ankle Behavior with a Powered Transtibial Prosthesis. IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics.
[4] Frigo, C., Crenna, P., Jensen, M. (1996). Moment-Angle Relationship at Lower Limb Joints during Human Walking at Different Velocities. Journal of Electromyogr. Kinesiol. Vol. 6. No. 3. PP. 177-190.
[5] Gabriel, R., Abrantes, J., Granata, K., Bulas-Cruz, J., Melo-Pinto, P., Filipe, V. (2008). Dynamic joint stiffness of the ankle during walking: Gender-related differences. Physical Therapy in Sport,9, 16-24.
[6] Hansen, A., Childress, D., Miff, S., Gard, S., Mesplay, K. (2004). The human ankle during walking: implications for design of biomimetic ankle prostheses. Journal of Biomechanics, 37, 1467-1474.
[7] Hansen, A., Miff, S., Childress, D., Gard, S., Meier, M. (2010). Net external energy of the biologic and prosthetic ankle during gait initiation. Gait & Posture, 31, 13-17.
[8] Hitt, J., Sugar, T., Holgate, M., Bellman, R. & Hollander, K., “Robotic transtibial prosthesis with biomechanical energy regeneration,” Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 441–447, 2009.
[9] Houdjik, H., Doets, H., Middelkoop, M., Veeger, H.E.J. (2008). Joint stiffness of the ankle during walking after successful mobile-bearing total ankle replacement. Gait & Posture, 27, 115-119.
[10] Moseley, A., Crosbie, J., Adams, R. (2001). Normative data for passive ankle plantarflexion-dorsiflexion flexibility. Clinical Biomechanics, 16, 514-521.
[11] Palmer, Michael Lars. (2002). “Sagittal Plane Characterization of Normal Human Ankle Function Across a Range of Walking Gait Speeds”. Master’s thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Thechnology.
[12] Pratt, G. A. & Williamson, M. M., “Series elastic actuators,” Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 399–406, 1995.
[13] Rihs, D., & Polizzi, I. (2001). prosthetic foot desighn. Australia: Monash Rehabilitation Thecnoloy Reasearch Unit.
[14] Shamaei, K., Cenciarini, M., Dollar, A. (2011). On the Mechanics of the Ankle in the stance Phase of the Gait. 33rd annual conference of the IEEE EMBS.
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    Sara Soltani Ch., Ali Esteki. (2015). Power Assessment of the Human Ankle during the Stance Phase of Walking for Designing a Safe Active Prosthesis in Below-Knee Amputees. Applied and Computational Mathematics, 4(2-1), 7-11. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.acm.s.2015040201.12

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    ACS Style

    Sara Soltani Ch.; Ali Esteki. Power Assessment of the Human Ankle during the Stance Phase of Walking for Designing a Safe Active Prosthesis in Below-Knee Amputees. Appl. Comput. Math. 2015, 4(2-1), 7-11. doi: 10.11648/j.acm.s.2015040201.12

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    AMA Style

    Sara Soltani Ch., Ali Esteki. Power Assessment of the Human Ankle during the Stance Phase of Walking for Designing a Safe Active Prosthesis in Below-Knee Amputees. Appl Comput Math. 2015;4(2-1):7-11. doi: 10.11648/j.acm.s.2015040201.12

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  • @article{10.11648/j.acm.s.2015040201.12,
      author = {Sara Soltani Ch. and Ali Esteki},
      title = {Power Assessment of the Human Ankle during the Stance Phase of Walking for Designing a Safe Active Prosthesis in Below-Knee Amputees},
      journal = {Applied and Computational Mathematics},
      volume = {4},
      number = {2-1},
      pages = {7-11},
      doi = {10.11648/j.acm.s.2015040201.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.acm.s.2015040201.12},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.acm.s.2015040201.12},
      abstract = {Many studies have been done on the biological human ankle and prosthesis replaced with this limb. Although some of these works targeted to design a prosthesis which mimics the behavior of biological ankle, additional system is required to support the elastic components; any of them have obviously introduced an active system in designing ankle prosthesis until now. In this study the power of the non-disabled human ankle joint was examined during the stance phase of walking in sagittal plane. The study aimed to better understand the ankle’s dynamic behavior for designing foot prosthesis with active mechanism. Kinematic and Kinetic data of the lower limb were collected from 18 healthy, young subjects (i.e. 6 females and 13 males) walking over a speed range of slow, normal and fast (i.e. 0.86 to 1.80 m/s). The ankle moment versus angle curves were plotted and total, mean and maximum values of powers were calculated for each trial. The results indicated that the total, mean and maximum values of the power could increase as the walking speed increased. The main findings of this study were the total, mean and maximum values of the power as a function of the linear velocity of walking. These results showed that the speed of 1.06 m/s was a critical velocity, below which the system was negative, showing energy consumer system, and above it the system was positive, suggesting generated energy. With the intent to design a prosthesis mimicking a biologic foot, an augmented system which is able to adjust the power to the speed is necessary.},
     year = {2015}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Power Assessment of the Human Ankle during the Stance Phase of Walking for Designing a Safe Active Prosthesis in Below-Knee Amputees
    AU  - Sara Soltani Ch.
    AU  - Ali Esteki
    Y1  - 2015/03/02
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    DO  - 10.11648/j.acm.s.2015040201.12
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    JF  - Applied and Computational Mathematics
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    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2328-5613
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.acm.s.2015040201.12
    AB  - Many studies have been done on the biological human ankle and prosthesis replaced with this limb. Although some of these works targeted to design a prosthesis which mimics the behavior of biological ankle, additional system is required to support the elastic components; any of them have obviously introduced an active system in designing ankle prosthesis until now. In this study the power of the non-disabled human ankle joint was examined during the stance phase of walking in sagittal plane. The study aimed to better understand the ankle’s dynamic behavior for designing foot prosthesis with active mechanism. Kinematic and Kinetic data of the lower limb were collected from 18 healthy, young subjects (i.e. 6 females and 13 males) walking over a speed range of slow, normal and fast (i.e. 0.86 to 1.80 m/s). The ankle moment versus angle curves were plotted and total, mean and maximum values of powers were calculated for each trial. The results indicated that the total, mean and maximum values of the power could increase as the walking speed increased. The main findings of this study were the total, mean and maximum values of the power as a function of the linear velocity of walking. These results showed that the speed of 1.06 m/s was a critical velocity, below which the system was negative, showing energy consumer system, and above it the system was positive, suggesting generated energy. With the intent to design a prosthesis mimicking a biologic foot, an augmented system which is able to adjust the power to the speed is necessary.
    VL  - 4
    IS  - 2-1
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Author Information
  • Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Tehran, Iran

  • Department of Biomechanics, Medical Physics and Engineering, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University (Medical Campus), Tehran, Iran

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